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IS 15071 (2002) : Chemical Protective 
Clothing — Specification. ICS 13.340.10 




Jawaharlal Nehru 
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IS 15071 :2002 

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Indian Standard 

CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING — 
SPECIFICATION 



ICS 13340.10 



*"»*Ufiet Pom I * * 



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©BIS 2002 

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 

MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG 
NEW DELHI 110002 

June 2002 Price Group 8 



Industrial Safety Sectional Committee, CHD 08 



FOREWORD 

This Indian Standard was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the draft finalized by the Industrial 
Safety Sectional Committee had been approved by the Chemical Division Council. 

Increased use of chemicals, phenomenal growth of process industries, and introduction of more complex and 
hazardous processes result in enhanced potential of chemical exposure. Engineering measures are the most 
preferred method to prevent/control exposure to hazardous chemicals. However, many times, as the last line of 
defence, personal protective equipment are relied upon to control chemical exposure of personnel. Chemical 
protective clothing is one of the key personal protective equipment for this purpose. 

Protective clothing comes in a wide range of types and materials, depending on the hazard to which one is likely 
to be exposed in the work environment. 

The primary function of protective clothing is to prevent, or reduce to an acceptable level* the exposure of the 
skin to a chemical hazard. Type and extent of chemical hazard, necessity for additional protections such as eye 
or respiratory protection, expected duration of exposure are some of the key aspects considered before selecting 
the protective clothing. Operations such as work with highly toxic chemicals, handling of hazardous chemicals, 
emergency operations, etc, may require full-body protective clothing. Based on these considerations, selection 
of garment, selection of material of construction and selection of design should be made. 

There is no ISO standard on this subject. Assistance has been derived from BS 71 84: 1 989 * Recommendations for 
selection, use and maintenance of chemical protective clothing* in developing this standard. 

The composition of the Committee responsible for the formulation of this standard is given in Annex F. 

For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, 
observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with 
IS 2 : 1 960 'Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised)'. The number of significant places retained in the 
rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard. 



IS 15071 : 2002 



Indian Standard 



CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 
SPECIFICATION 



1 SCOPE 

This standard provides requirements and methods of 
sampling and tests for chemical protective clothing. 
It also gives guidance for the selection of clothing 
intended to protect the skin against contact with 
chemicals and prescribes the basic requirements for 
the fabric. 

2 REFERENCES 

The Indian Standards given below contain provisions, 
which through reference in this text, constitute 
provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, 
the editions indicated were valid. All standards are 
subject to revision, and parties to agreements based 
on this standard are encouraged to investigate the 
possibility of applying the most recent editions of 
the standards indicated below: 

IS No. Title 

1 964 : 200 1 Textiles — Methods for determination of 
mass per unit length and mass per unit 
area of fabrics (second revision) 

1 969 : 1 985 Methods for determination of breaking 
load and elongation of woven textile 
fabric (second revision) 

6359 : 1 971 Method for conditioning of textiles 

3 TERMINOLOGY 

For the purpose of this standard the following 
definitions shall apply. 

3.1 Air-Impermeable Materials 

Materials through which permanent gases cannot 
pass except by undergoing a process of solution. 

3.2 Air- Permeable Materials 

Materials having pores or apertures that allow the 
transmission of air. 

3.3 Breakthrough Time 

The elapsed time between the initial application of a 
chemical to the appropriate surface of the material 
and its subsequent presence on the other side of the 

material. 

3.4 Chemical Hazard 

The potential of a chemical to cause harm to the human 
body by contact with the skin. 



3.5 Chemical Protective Clothing 

A garment which covers or replaces personal clothing, 
and which is designed to provide protection against one 
or more chemicals. 

3.6 Chemical Resistance 

Chemical protective clothing's ability to withstand 
specific chemicals under a wide range of environmental 
conditions. 

3.7 Garment 

An individual item of protective clothing, the wearing of 
which affords protection to the skin against exposure to 
or contact with chemicals. 

NOTE — For the purpose of this standard, gloves and boots 
are treated as garments. 

3.8 Gas-Tight Suit 

A one-piece garment with hood, gloves and boots which, 
when worn with self-contained or compressed air-line 
breathing apparatus, affords the wearer a high degree of 
protection against harmful liquids, dusts and gaseous 
or vapour contaminants. 

3.9 Hazard 

Situation which can be the cause of harm or damage to 
the health of human body. There are different types of 
hazards, for example, mechanical hazards, chemical 
hazards, fire hazards, temperature hazards, radiation 
hazards, biological hazards, ergonomic stresses, etc. 

3.10 Penetration 

The passage of chemicals, in any physical form, from the 
outside of the clothing to the inside via essential 
openings, fastenings, seams, overlaps between items, 
pores and any imperfections in the materials of 
construction. 

3.11 Permeation 

A combined process of molecular diffusion of a chemical 
through a solid material forming the whole or part of 
clothing and its desorption into a specified medium. 
Permeation is determined in terms of Permeation Rate 
and Breakthrough Time. 

3.12 Permeation Rate 

The rate at which a chemical permeates through the 
protective material. It is expressed as mg.cnf 2 .miri~ ' or 
^.cm^.min 1 . 



IS 15071 :2002 



3.13 Total Protection Suit 

Chemical protective suit combining eye/face protection, 
respiratory protection, hand protection, body 
protection, leg/feet protection into one full-body 
covering. 

4 TYPES 

The protective clothing shall be classified into the 
following four types based on the breakthrough time 
as indicated in Table 1 and when tested in accordance 
with Annex A. 

Table 1 Classification Based on Breakthrough 
Time in Relation to Type of Application 



Type Breakthrough 
Time 



(1) 

I 



(2) 
Over 6 h 



2 to 6 h 

12 min to 
2 h 

Up to 12 
min 



Action if 
Contaminated 

(3) 
Wash off/clean 
at the end of 
work period 
Wash off/clean at the 
end of work period 
Wash off/clean 
immediately 
Remove as soon 
as possible 



Application 

(4) 
Long terra 
continuous 
exposure 
Routine tasks 

Short term 
protection 
Emergency 
use/disposable 
garments only 



5 REQUIREMENT 

5.1 Material 

5.1.1 Chemical protective suits shall be made from a 
fabric (treated cotton or artificial fibre) coated with 
synthetic elastomers like neoprene, styrenes, butadiene 
rubber, etc. The coating shall be free from pinholes and 
there shall be no exposed textile on the surface that 
could provide a path for liquid penetration by wicking. 
Some of the primary construction materials of total 
protection suits are given in Table 2 for guidance. 

Table 2 Primary Construction Materials of Total 
Protection Suits for Chemicals 



Layer 3 

(3) 
Butyl 
Chloroprene 



PVC 



Layer 1 Layer 2 

(1) (2) 

Butyl Nylon 

Butyl Polyester 

Chloroprene Nylon 

PVC Nylon 

PVC Polyester 

PVC Nylon 

NOTES 

1 The primary construction materials are described with 
the external surface first (layer 1) and surface facing the 
wearer last (layer 3). 

2 Unsupported laminated PVC films are also used for making 
these suits, but as the possibility of accidentally puncturing 
or tearing such films is greater than for a textile based 
material, they are less suitable for high risk applications and 
total protection suits. Generally, such unsupported plastics 
film or rubber sheet is used to construct aprons or similar 
garments, especially clothing designated as disposable. 



5.2 Fabric 

5.2.1 The fabric used for the protection clothing shall 
be as given in Table 3 . 

Table 3 Specification for Chemical Protection Suit 
Fabric 



SI 

No, 

(I) 



ii) 



iii) 



Characteristic Requirement 



Test Method 
Refto 



(2) 
Mass per area 
g/m 2 , Mitt 
Breaking strength, 
kg/cm 3 , Min 

a) warp direction 

b) weft direction 
Dimensional change, due 
to cleaning, in percent 

a) lengthwise 

b) breadthwise 



(3) 
300 



12 



±3 
±3 



Annex 
(5) 



IS 
(4) 
1964 

3322 



— Annex B 



5,2.2 When observed with naked eye, the material shall 
not show any sign of cracking due to weathering effect 
or when exposed to corrosive chemicals. 

5.23 Reliable chemical resistance test data shall be 
obtained from the manufacturer before selection of the 
fabric. A general chemical-resistance selection data shall 
provide information on permeation of the chemicals 
against which its use is recommended. Such permeation 
data shall contain breakthrough time (in hours) and 
permeation rate (in ug. cnr 2 ,min -1 ). 

NOTE — Permeation by chemicals — Even without any 
surface flaws or holes, coatings can absorb certain chemicals, 
which are thus able to diffuse by permeation through the 
material. This process proceeds broadly in three stages: 

a) initial absorption of the chemical by the polymer film 
or coating; 

b) solution of the chemical in the polymer film or coating; 

c) desorption from the opposite surface of the material 
into the internal environment of the garment. 

Annex A gives a method of test for the determination of 
breakthrough time and for the amounts of chemicals 
permeating thereafter. In selection of the protective 
garment material the results of such tests should be 
considered. Having got the permeation data the risk of 
chemicals coming into contact with the skin when air- 
impermeable protective clothing is worn may be minimized 
by following the actions indicated in Table 1. Typical 
permeation data for various glove materials are given in 
Tables 4 and 5. 

6 PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 

6.1 General 

6.1.1 The materials and components of protective 
clothing shall not be known to adversely affect the 
wearer. 

6.1.2 Parts of the protective clothing that can come 
into contact with the user shall be free of roughness, 
sharp edges and projections that could cause irritation 
or injuries. 



IS 15071 ; 2002 



6.1.3 The threads shall be of same chemical resistant 
material or of equivalent material. 

6.2 Size and Design 

6.2.1 Adequate size range shall be provided so as to 
enable protective clothing to be adapted to the 
morphology of the user. The size and design of the 
clothing shall be as agreed between the purchaser and 
the supplier. 

6.2.2 The control dimensions for protective clothing 
shall be height, chest or bust girth and waist girth. 

6.2.3 The size designation of each garment shall 
comprise with at least two control dimensions in 
millimetres. These two control dimensions shall be 
either: 

a) height and chest or bust girth, or 

b) height and the waist girth. 

NOTE — These control dimensions should be designated as 
ranges expressed in millimetres. A range interval of 60 mm 
for height and 40 mm for chest or bust girth and waist girth 
are recommended. 

6.2.4 Where applicable, protective clothing design 
shall take into account other items of protective 
clothing or equipment which must be worn to form an 
overall protective ensemble. The same level of 
protection shall be provided at interface areas, such as 
sleeve to glove, trouser, cuff and hood. 



63 Seam Strength 

63.1 Seams shall be so constructed and sealed (by 
using a double overlap type of seam or other appropriate 
design) to prevent penetration of liquid through stitch 
holes or, by penetration or permeation, through other 
components of the seam. The performance of the seam 
in these respects shall not be inferior to that of the 
material from which it is made. 

63.2 The seam strength of the garment shall not be 
less than 1 85 N ( 1 9 kgf) at the load bearing seams and 
shall not be less than 135 N (14 kgf) at other seams 
when tested in accordance with the procedure 
prescribed in Annex C. 

6.4 Pockets 

Pockets weaken the resistance of the base fabric at the 
seams, present the risks of snagging, and may collect 
spilt or splashed chemicals. Thus garments designed 
to protect against serious hazards shall not have any 
external pockets. 

6.5 Fastenings 

Since fastenings (zip fasteners, etc) are weak points, 
care shall be taken, particularly in high performance 
garments, in the design (placement of fastenings, 
covering flaps, overlaps) to ensure adequate sealing. 
All fasteners shall be able to withstand the cleaning 
operations used on the garment. 



Table 4 Solvent Breakthrough Time (in Hours) for Various Glove Materials 

(Clauses 5.2.3 and 6.7) 



Solvent 






Glove Material 








Natural 


Neoprene 


Neoprene + 


Nitrile 


PVC 


PVA 




Rubber 




Natural Rubber 








(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


Carbon tetrachloride 




0.03-0.5 


0.08->1.0 


0.07 


l->8 


0.01-0.66 >3 


Chloroform 


0.01-0.05 


0.01-0.36 


0.05-0.11 


0.07-0.30 


0.01 


>6 


Methylene chloride 


0.01-0. 10 


0.01-0.22 


0.03-0.07 


0.03-0.15 


0.01-0.20 


0.28->8 


Methyl iodide 


0.03-0.05 


0.01-0.28 


0.03-0.09 


0.01-0.13 


0.02 


>8 


1,1,2,2-tetrachloro- 


0.03-0.35 


0.09->l 


0.15 


0.22-1.2 


0.01-0.10 


>8 


ethane 














1,1,2-trichloroethane 


0.02 


0.12 


— 


0.03 


0.03 


0.25->8 


Perchloroethylene 


<0.02-0.1 


0.10-0.80 


0.05-0.30 


0.22-7.3 


<0.01-0.75 


0.35->16 


Methanol 


0.02-6 


0.25->8 


0.10-1.1 


0.18-3.2 


0.02-6 


0.02-0.04 


Ethanol 


0,02->8 


1-12.6 


0.17->l 


>l->8 


0.03-0.33 


1.67 


2~propanol 


0.02->8 


>l->6 


0.10-0.83 


>6 


0.5->3 


— 


N-butanol 


0.02-1.2 


4->8 


0.25-1.2 


>6 


0.42-3 


0.5->8 


Benzene 


0.01-0.18 


0.02-3.1 


0.05 


0.07-1.0 


<0.01-0.5 


0.05->33 


Toluene 


0.01-0.68 


0.02-0.52 


0.07-0.20 


0.13-1.2 


<0.01-0.47 


0.02->25 


Aniline 


0.25->8 


0.25->8 


0.09->6 


0.30-5.4 


0.05->16 


>1->16 


Phenol 


0.27->8 


0.35->8 


>6 


0.53->8 


0.05-1.3 


>6 


Acetone 


0.02->3 


0.04->l 


0.05-0.43 


0.07-0.30 


<0.02-0.30 


0.07->4 


Methyl ethyl ketone 


0.02-0.17 


0.04-2.8 


0.08-0.10 


0.06-0.33 


0.02-0.27 


0.10-7 


Tetrahydrofuran 


0.02-0.11 


0.02-2.5 


0.02-0.06 


<O.01-0.28 


0.01-0.10 


4.7 


Dimethyl sulfoxide 


0.02->6 


<0.01->8 


0.7->6 


<0.01->4 


0.05-1.0 


__ 


Dimethyl formamide 


0.25-0.11 


0,02->6 


0.25-0.77 


0.02->5 


0.23-1.0 


0.08-0.37 


Pyridine 


0.03-0.43 


0.03-0.63 


0.14-0.23 


0.09-0.25 


0.02 


0.52 


Dioxane 


0.08-0.45 


0.09-1.8 


0.10-0.30 


0.28-1.1 


0.01-0.11 


>16 


N-hexane 


0.08 


0.06-3.3 


>0.08 


>l->8 


0.20-0.42 


>6 


Water 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


0.25 


— 



IS 15071 : 2002 



Table 5 Solvent Permeation Rates (in pg.cnr'.min 1 ) Through Glove Materials 

(Clauses 5.2.3 and 6.8) 



Solvent 






Glove Material 










r 

Natural 


Neoprene 


Neoprene + 


Nitrile 


PVC 


PVA 


\ 




Rubber 




Natural Rubber 










(I) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 




Carbon tetrachloride 


2 664 


1 036 


3 858 


22 


967 


3 




Chloroform 


7 856 


3 227 


5 711 


6 079 


12 606 


— 




Methylene chloride 


4 529 


2 360 


1 348 


4 269 


8 312 


1 




Methyl iodide 


10 794 


4 896 


8 917 


7 976 


— 


— 




t,i,2,2-tetrachloro- 


2 765 


1 173 


3 206 


2 204 


3 466 


— 




ethane 
















U,2-trichloroethane 


_ 


__ 


— 


— 


1 236 


— 




Perchloroethylene 


2 222 


770 


995 


72 


516 


5 




Methanol 


32 


15 


11 


77 


30 


545 




Ethanol 


12 


3 


4 


5 


24 


30 




2-propanol 


4 


5 


4 


5 


24 


30 




N-butanol 


15 


5 


1 


— 


18 


49 




Benzene 


2 185 


545 


1 739 


549 


2 037 


12 




Toluene 


1 579 


1 439 


1 803 


478 


2 030 


85 




Aniline 


13 


7 


15 


215 


75 


— 




Phenol 


17 


25 


— 


283 


104 


— 




Acetone 


330 


243 


96 


2 066 


340 


37 




Methyl ethyl ketone 


746 


641 


432 


I 546 


721 


3 




Tetrahydrofuran 


11 202 


6 456 


16 699 


2 650 


— 


3 




Dimethyl sulfoxide 


78 


30 


4 


78 


102 


— 




Dimethyl formamide 


298 


97 


126 


120 


138 


716 




Pyridine 


621 


732 


350 


3 266 


— 


402 




Dioxane 


300 


345 


224 


770 


2 793 


— 




N-hexane 


751 


130 


_ 


284 


180 


__ 




Water 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 





6.6 Air-Tightness 

The Joss of pressure due to leaks shall not exceed 
20mm H 2 (lmmH 2 O=10N/m 2 orl0Pa) in a period of 

6 min, when the suit is tested in accordance with 
Annex D. 

6.7 BreakthrouthTime 

The chemical protective clothing of different types shall 
conform to the requirements given in Table 1 . However, 
breakthrough time for different materials have also been 
given in Table 4 for guidance. 

6.8 Liquid Permeation Rate 

The liquid permeation rate for chemical protective 
clothing of different types shall conform to the 
requirements as agreed to between the purchaser and 
the supplier.The liquid permeation rate for different 
materials has also been given in Table 5 for guidance. 

7 MARKING 

7, 1 Each piece of protective clothing shall be marked 
on the product itself or on label attached to the product 
so as to be visible, legible and durable to the appropriate 
number of cleaning process. 

The protective clothing shall be marked with the 
following details: 

a) Name; 

b) Trade-mark or other means of identification of the 
manufacturer; and 



c) A size tag specifying the chest or bust girth 
and height shall be positioned inside the 
garment sewn in the collar seam. 

7.2 The marking shall also include the designation 
of the product or base material type and commercial 
name. Washing or cleaning instructions shall be given 
on the label. 

7.3 The marking ink shall be non-irritating to skin 
and shall not impair the quality of the protective 
clothing. 

7.4 BIS Certification Marking 

The chemical protective clothing may also be marked 
with the Standard Mark. 

7.4.1 The use of the standard mark is governed by 
the provisions of the Bureau of Indian Standards 
Act, 1 986 and Rules and Regulations made thereunder. 
The details of conditions under which the licence for 
the use of the Standard Mark may be granted to 
manufacturers or producers may be obtained from 
the Bureau of Indian Standards, 

8 PACKING 

The suits shall be dusted with talc and packed 
individually in PVC covers. 

9 SELECTION 

Selection of the chemical protective clothing shall be 
in accordance with Annex E. 



IS 15071 : 2002 



ANNEX A 
(Clauses 4, 5.23, 6.7 and 6.8) 

PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE BREAKTHROUGH TIME AND PERMEATION RATE 



A-l PRINCIPLE 

The test specimen acts as a barrier between one 
compartment of the permeation test cell containing the 
test liquid and the other compartment through which a 
stream of carrier gas or liquid is passed for the collection 
of diffused molecules of the test liquid or its component 
chemicals for analysis. 

The mass of the test liquid or its component chemicals 
in the collecting medium is determined as function of 
time after application to the test specimen. From the 
graph of mass of the test liquid vs time, the breakthrough 
time and the steady state permeation rate after the 
breakthrough time are determined. 

A-2 REAGENTS 

A-2.1 Gaseous Collecting Medium 

Either dry air or a dry, non-flammable inert gas. This 
gas is used, under continuous flow conditions, for the 
collection of diffused molecules from the test liquid 
capable of vapourizing under the conditions of the test 
in sufficient quantities for analysis. 

A-2.2 Liquid Collecting Medium 

Either water or another liquid which does not influence 
the resistance of the test specimen to permeation. This 
liquid is used, under continuous flow conditions, for 
the collection of diffused molecules of low volatility 
that are soluble in the collecting medium under the 
conditions of the test in sufficient quantities for 
analysis. 

A-3 APPARATUS 

A-3.1 Permeation Cell 

This comprises two flanged compartments that can be 
bolted together to form a cylinder. The dimensions are 
as shown in Fig. 1. The upper compartment for 
containment of the test liquid is fitted with a loose 
cover to avoid build-up of pressure and prevent 
excessive contamination of the immediate environment 
when volatile chemicals are under test 

The lower compartment or flow compartment is of 
similar overall dimensions but has pipe-work to allow 
gas or liquid to circulate freely at the designated rates 
without build-up of pressure. The internal dimensions 
of the flow-through compartment and its pipe- work 
(internal diameter 4.5 mm) are critical to the performance 
of the test. 

The permeation cell and pipe-work shall be made of 
inert materials. Brass apparatus is generally suitable 



for permeation tests by the gas-flow technique and 
PTFE or glass by the liquid-flow technique. 

A-3.2 Temperature Controlled Room or Waterbath 

To maintain a constant temperature to a tolerance 
of±l Cover the period of test. 

A-3.3 Equipment for Supply of Gaseous Collection 
Medium 

This comprises compressed gas supply (for example, 
dry air, helium or nitrogen) complete with regulator, 
flow meter and pipe-work for connection to the inlet of 
the flow compartment of the permeation cell. The rate 
of flow shall be 520 ± 52 ml/min in the direction indicated 
in Fig. 1 (This is equivalent to approximately 30 
compartment volume changes per minute). 

The gas shall not be recirculated through the cell. 

The required rate of flow may be obtained either by 
suitable control of the gas pressure at the inlet to the 
permeation cell or by providing a pump at the outlet 
from the analyzer. These alternate configurations are 
shown in Fig. 2. The choice of configuration is generally 
determined by the method of collection and/or detection 
of the test liquid or its component chemicals. 

A-3.4 Equipment for Supply of Liquid Collecting 
Medium 

This comprises liquid flow pump complete with 
regulator, flow meter and pipe-work for connection to 
the inlet of the flow compartment of the permeation 
cell. The rate of flow shall be 206 ± 21 ml/min in the 
direction indicated in Fig. 1 (This is equivalent to 
approximately 12 compartment volume changes per 
minute). 

The materials of construction of the equipment are such 
that no parts of the pump, associated pipe-work and 
flow meter shall contaminate the liquid to be passed 
through the flow compartment of the permeation cell. 

The collecting liquid shall not be recirculated through 
the permeation cell. 

A-3.5 Equipment for Measurement of Mass of Test 
Liquid or its Component Chemicals in Gas or Liquid 
Collecting Medium 

This may include instruments responding directly to 
changes in concentration in the stream of gas or liquid, 
or may include absorbers and sampling equipment 
associated with specific analytical procedures. 

The analytical system should, where possible, have a 
minimum sensitivity for the selected component 



IS 15071 : 2002 



chemicals of 1 fig/min/cm 2 of exposed specimen. The 
maximum response time should be 60 s. Whatever 
apparatus is coupled to the permeation cell to measure 
concentrations in the collecting medium, the pressure 
and flow of the collecting medium within the permeation 
cell should be maintained constant, 

A-3.6 StopWatch 

This should be capable of measuring to the nearest 

second. 

A-4 TEST SPECIMENS 

A-4.1 Selection 

From a flat sample of the material submitted for the test, 
cut from the same location a minimum of 3 test 
specimens of the same diameter as the flange of the 
permeation cell, avoiding as far as possible any obvious 
perforations, surface defects or pinholes. 

The testing of 3 similar specimens is intended to 
establish the test method has been carried out correctly, 
as defined in A-5. 

If permeation testing is to be used to establish the 
uniformity of quality in a larger area of test material, for 
example, a roll of sheet, then an appropriate statistical 
sampling technique should be used. In this case, 
3 samples should be tested from each sampling site to 
demonstrate consistency of the permeation test. 

When defects in the test specimens may be such as to 
allow gross quantity of the test liquid to pass into the 
flow compartment, due account should be taken of the 
potential consequences of overloading the analytical 
detection equipment. 

A-4.2 Preparation of Test Specimens 

Use a template to mark on the test specimen the 
positions of the bolts used to clamp the two halves of 
the cell together. Cut circular holes to allow the bolts to 
pass freely through the test specimens when placed 
between the two halves of the permeation cells, 

A-5 PROCEDURE 

A-5.1 Preparation of Apparatus 

Mount the test specimen between the two halves of 
the permeation cell. Ensure that the surface of the test 
specimen corresponding to the outer surface when in 
use is uppermost in the cell, facing the compartment 
used to contain the test liquid. Check that the test 
specimen is not under tension when laid in position 
over the bolts. Tighten the bolts to obtain a leak tight 
assembly. 

Where appropriate, take precautions to avoid 
transference of liquid from the top to the under surface 
of the test specimen. These precautions apply in 
particular if, for example, the top surface acts as a wick 



and the under surfaced rough, when liquid may be 
drawn by capillary action across the top surface and 
reach the under surface via the bolt holes. 

Place the assembled permeation cell, complete with leak 
tight pipe- work and connections to the appropriate 
equipment (see A-3), in the temperature controlled room 
or water bath at the required temperature. 

The test should be conducted at the temperature most 
relevant to the use of the material or, in the absence of 
other preference, at 20 C. 

Connect the appropriate gaseous or liquid collecting 
medium and adjust the flow through the permeation 
cell to the required rate and allow the system to stabilize. 
Connect the system to suitable analytical equipment 
and recheck the flow characteristics. 

A-5. 2 Assessment of Breakthrough Time and 
Subsequent Mass of Permeating Liquid 

Bring the test liquid to the required test temperature 
and maintain this temperature within ±1°C for the 
duration of the test. 

Discharge 10 ml of the test liquid rapidly into the 
upper compartment of the permeation cell and start the 
clock. Ensure that the appropriate surface of the test 
specimen is completely covered with the test liquid 
throughout the period of the test. 

If the density of the liquid is high, and the strength of 
the sample under test is low, for example, thin latex 
films, the weight of liquid may distort the test sample, 
leading to an increase in sample area. In this case, the 
liquid volume may be reduced but care should be taken 
to ensure that the test sample is completely covered 
with the test liquid throughout the period of the test. 

Analyze, either continuously or at appropriate intervals 
of time according to the equipment used, the collecting 
medium that forms the effluent stream from the lower 
compartment of the permeation cell. 

Using appropriate calibration factors, calculate from 
each analysis the cumulative mass of test liquid or its 
component chemical (s) that has been desorbed from 
the test specimen into the collecting medium at 
measured times after the initial discharge of the test 
liquid. 

Record the results and plot a graph showing the 
cumulative mass as a function of time, as illustrated in 
Fig. 3, When the slope of the curve becomes constant, 
continue the test for a further 60 min. Repeat the test 
with the other two test specimens. 

A-5.3 Assessment of Physical Condition of Test 
Specimen 

Remove the test specimen from the permeation cell. 
Inspect each test specimen in a well-lit area by the 



IS 15071 : 2002 



naked eye (use spectacles if necessary to ensure normal 
vision) and observe whether or not the test specimen 
has been changed in any way by its contact with the 
test liquid. If any change is observed, note whether the 
test specimen has become flaked, swollen, disintegrated 
and/or embrittled. Note the nature of any other changes. 

A-5.4 Expression of Results 

For each of the test specimens, make a linear 
extrapolation of the slope in the graph, which 
corresponds to the approximate steady state permeation 
rate, until the line cuts the X-axis. The breakthrough 
time is represented by the intercept with the X-axis and 
is expressed in minutes. Record the individual values 
of the breakthrough times and calculate the mean. 

Record the mass of the test liquid or its component 
chemicals permeating in the 30 min and 60 min periods 
following the breakthrough time by reading the 
corresponding values directly from the cumulative 

graph. 

Record whether the test specimens have been changed 
in any way and, if so, whether they have become flaked, 
swollen, disintegrated, or embrittled. Record the nature 
of any other change that has been observed. 

A-5.5 Calibration 

Calibrate the response of the analytical system to the 
test liquid or its component chemicals and, where 
appropriate, ensure that concentrations up to saturation 
of the collecting medium may be determined. 

A-6 REPEAT TESTS 

A-6.1 Assess whether the results obtained from any 
one test specimen accord with a requirement that they 
should lie within 20 percent of the corresponding mean 
of the results taken over the set of test specimens. 

Experience in the development of this method indicates 
that this requirement is generally met with, provided 
that the test specimens have been drawn from a material 
that is physically homogeneous and is not subject to 
distortion or decomposition when in contact with the 
test liquid. 

A-6.2 if the results accord with the requirement given 
above, prepare the test report as described in A-7. 

A-6.3 If the results do not accord with the requirement, 
prepare a second set of test specimens and repeat the 

tests. 

A-6.4 If the results thus obtained from the second set 
of test specimens accord with the requirement given 
in A-6.1, include only these results in the test report. 

If the results obtained from the second set of test 
specimens do not accord with the requirements given 



in A-6.1, combine the results of both sets of test 
specimens in the preparation of the test report. 

In this case further appropriate checks should be made 
to discriminate between those variations that arise from 
real differences between test specimens and those 
variations arising from an undue degree of experimental 
error in the procedure described in A -5.1 to A-5.5. 

A-7 TEST REPORT 

Begin the test report with the following statement: 

'The greater the degree of distortion of the specimen 
through absorption of the test liquid, the greater is 
likely to be the variation between the results from repeat 
tests.' 

The test report shall include the following information: 

a) that the test was carried out in accordance with 
this Indian Standard; 

b) the manufacturer's reference for the material 
submitted for test; 

c) the identity of the test liquid(s) used and, as 
appropriate, of any component chemical(s) to 
which the analytical procedures described in A-5 
have been applied; 

d) the temperature, in degree Celcius, used in the 
test; 

e) the mean and individual values of the 
breakthrough times, in minutes ; 

f) the mean and individual values of the mass of 
test liquid or its component chemical(s) permeating 
1 cm 2 of the test specimens in 30 min and 60 min 
after breakthrough; 

g) a copy of the graph(s) used in the calculation of 
the data; 

h) a description of the analytical technique including 
a statement of its sensitivity and precision; 

j) the identity of the collecting medium; 

k) where appropriate, the particular part of a garment 
from which the material submitted for test was 
taken; 

m) if appropriate, a description of those obvious 
perforations, surface defects or pinholes that have 
affected the selection of test specimens; 

n) a statement of whether or not the test specimen(s), 
during its contact with the test liquid, has changed 
in any way, as has been noted by subsequent 
visual inspection and/or shown signs of flaking, 
swelling, disintegration, embrittlement or other 
physical changes; and 

p) any comments considered appropriate by the 
person carrying out the tests. 

Such comments might include a statement of the steady 
state permeation rate expressed as ng.cm ^.min -1 . 



IS 15071 : 2002 



<*>30 



COVER 



LIQUID 
COMPARTMENT 



MATERIAL 
SCREWS 




FLOW 
COMPARTMENT 




SECTION XX 

(NOTE - Exposed area of test materials : 4.91 cm 3 ; and volume of flow 



compartment : 17.2 cm 2 ) 
All dimensions in millimetres. 

Fig. 1 Permeation Cell 



8 



IS 15071 : 2002 



RECORDER 



TEST CELL 




Fig.2 Schematic of Alternative Arrangements of Equipment 



< in 

< 
> O 

O 



STEADY STATE 
PERMEATION 




BREAKTHROUGH 
TIME 



TIME (Minutes) 

Fig. 3 Breakthrough Time and Steady State Permeation Rate 



IS 15071 :2002 



ANNEX B 
[Table 3, SI No. (iii)] 

METHOD OF TEST FOR DIMENSION AL CHANGE 



fr-1 GENERAL 



Follow the washing or dry cleaning instructions of the 
manufacturer, if a detailed cleaning procedure is 
provided by the manufacturer. In case of lack of such 
guidelines from the manufacturer, the following general 
procedure shall be followed. 

B-2 WASHING TREATMENT 

Prepare a wash liquor of neutral detergent solution of 
concentration 2 g/1 using soft water. Adjust the washing 
machine to a temperature of 40 C. Place the fabric 
specimen and the wash liquor in the wash tub up to the 
full level of the washer. Start the washing at the set 
temperature and continue for a period of 12 min to 



complete one cycle. Subject the fabric for 5 such 
washing cycles. Remove the fabric, rinse with same 
quality water, dry and condition and check the change 
in dimension both in length and in width. 

B~3 DRY-CLEANING 

If dry-cleaning is recommended, the fabric is placed in 
a container with a dry-cleaning solvent to get a material 
to liquor ratio of 1 : 5. Seal the jars, clamp in 
launderometer and run it at room temperature for 
10 min and drain. Repeat the above process 2 times to 
complete one cycle. The fabric shall be subjected to 5 
such cycles. Remove the specimen, blot thoroughly, 
air dry and condition. Check for change in dimension. 



ANNEX C 
(Clause 63.2) 

METHOD OF TEST FOR SEAM STRENGTH OF GARMENT 



C-l APPARATUS 



A constant rate of extension textile testing machine as 
described in IS 1 969 shall be required. 

C-2 PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMEN 

Cut specimen from a double thickness of fabric that 
includes a seam such that the seam lies midway between 
the ends and perpendicular to the major axis of the 
specimen, when prepared and opened out as shown in 

Fig. 4. 

The specimen shall be 50 mm wide and 100 mm long. 
Cut one specimen from each main load bearing seam of 
the garment ensuring that the following seams are 
included: 

a) an armhole seam; and 

b) the seat seam. 



Specimen from each non-load bearing seam of the 
garment shall also be cut for the test. 

C-3 Condition the test specimen from dry side in the 
standard atmospheric condition of 65 ± 5 percent 
relative humidity and 27 ± 2 C for 24 h, as specified in 
IS 6359, before carrying out the test. 

The test shall be carried out in the standard atmospheric 
condition. 

C-4 Carry out the test in accordance with IS 1969. 
Ensure that the seam lies midway between the jaws of 
the testing machine and perpendicular to the direction 
of pull as shown in Fig. 4. 

C-5 Record the seam strength of each of the load 
bearing seam specimen in Newtons and find out the 
mean value. Also establish the seam strength of non- 
load bearing seam specimens. 



10 



IS 15071 : 2002 



50.0 




DIRECTION 

OF PULL 

DURING TEST 



(b) OPENED OUT SPECIMEN 



All dimensions in millimetres. 
Fig. 4 Specimen for Seam Strength 



U 



IS 15071 : 2002 



ANNEX D 
(Clause 6.6) 

LEAK TEST FOR GAS-TIGHT SUITS 



D-l PRINCIPLE 



The; suit is inflated and the loss of pressure over a 
defined period is noted. 

D-2 PROCEDURE 

D-2.1 Lay out the suit including gloves and boots, 
and facemask, if appropriate, on a suitable flat and clean 
surface away from any source of heat and/or draught. 

D-2.2 Remove any creases or folds in the suit as far as 
practicable. Make an inflation connection and carefully 
blank off the valves, etc, with appropriate components 
as recommended by the manufacturer. 



D-2.3 Inflate the suit carefully to a maximum pressure 
of 1 80 mm H 2 0, and then allow it to settle for a period of 
at least 1 min to allow any creased areas to unfold, the 
suit to stretch, the temperature to stabilize and the 
pressure throughout the suit to reach equilibrium. 

D-2.4 Adjust the pressure in the suit to 1 70 mm H 2 0. 

D-2.5 Allow a further period of 6 min to elapse and 
note any loss of pressure. 

NOTE — Pay careful attention to the cleanliness and the 
refitting of valves which have been obstructed or removed 
in order to carry out the test, to ensure that they function 
satisfactorily after the test. 



ANNEX E 
(Clause 9) 

SELECTION OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 



E\ SELECTIONOFGARMENTANDMATERIAL 
OF CONSTRUCTION 

The following points shall be taken into account in 
selecting the garment and material of construction of 
the protective clothing: 

a) seriousness of the chemical hazard, 

b) need for eye and/or respiratory protection, 

c) need for coveralls, 

d) need for special boots, 

e) need for air-impermeable garments), 

f) chemical resistance required of the garment, 

g) duration of such a requirement, and 

h) durability of the garment or protective clothing. 

Discussions with safety experts, chemical 
manufacturers, occupational experts, and garment 
manufacturers are necessary for correct selection of 
garment and material of construction. 

E-2 SELECTION OF DESIGN 

Compatibility with other protective equipment, 
ergonomic considerations, maintainability, etc, are some 
of the main design aspects considered for the protective 
clothing. Figures 5 and 6 schematically depict such a 
selection procedure. 

E-3 TOTAL PROTECTION SUIT 

This type of suit offers full body protection from 
exposure to the chemical against which it is 
recommended. The components of such a total 
protection suit that prevent chemical exposure are: 

Hoods 
Coverall/ clothing 



Gloves 

Boots 

Visors 

Air connections 

Complete cover garments and gas-tight suits are 
examples of such total protection suits. 

E-4 COMPLETE COVER GARMENTS 

Complete cover garments (see Fig. 7) can be worn with 
some form of visor and respirator or breathing 
apparatus to protect eyes and face and to guard against 
inhaling chemicals. 

Where the danger to the skin is small, air-permeable 
garments together with specially approved respiratory 
protection may be acceptable when dealing with 
chemicals in powder form. 

Otherwise an air-impermeable assembly should be 
adopted comprising one-or-two piece plastics or 
elastomer coated coverall, gloves, boots and complete 
head protection. Hoods should be sufficiently large to 
accommodate goggles, etc, comfortably, and (if 
attached to a coat-like garment) to allow the weight of 
the garment to be taken by the wearer's shoulders, 
rather than by the head. 

For protection where particularly hazardous chemicals 
are not involved, and respiratory protection is thus not 
indicated, air-permeable coveralls worn with gloves, 
goggles and boots are often adequate. 

E-5 GAS-TIGHT SUITS 

Total protection suit used to protect against gases and 
vapours that are skin-absorbed (for example, HCN) shall 



12 



IS 15071 : 2002 



provide a gas-tight environment. Relevant literature 
(for example, the current Threshold Limit Values Booklet 
by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial 
Hygienists) should be referred to identify skin-absorbed 

substances. 

To isolate wearer completely from environment (for 
example, from a toxic gas) an all-enveloping garment 
shall have no pinholes and be proof against passage 
of the gas by dissolution in the membrane (see Fig. 7), 

If the breathing apparatus is isolated from the interior 
of the suit, the latter is effectively a sealed container. 
Any chemicals entering by permeation cannot be swept 
away and a greater concentration of contaminant will 
build up than in the case of air- fed suit Breathing 
apparatus (which may be either inside or outside the 
suit) is obviously necessary. Reinforcement of the part 
of the suit in contact with the apparatus may be 
desirable to give added support and to reduce the risk 
of abrasion to the suit. 

A gas-tight, air-supplied suit, in which the interior of 
the suit is purged and conditioned by an external air 
supply while breathing air is fed from separate air line 
or self-contained breathing apparatus, provides 
maximum protection for both skin and lungs. 

The arrangement for use of the breathing apparatus 

shall be of one of the following forms: 

a) where the breathing apparatus is to be worn over 

the suit, the breathing apparatus face mask shall 

be bonded or otherwise attached in a leak-tight 

manner as an integral part of the suit and arranged 



so as to permit the face mask to seal on the wearer's 
face by means of the normal seal and head harness 
of the mask concerned. Access to the face mask 
seal and head harness shall not be affected in any 
way. 
b) where breathing apparatus is to be worn inside 
the suit, the suit shall have a transparent face 
piece and be of sufficient size to accommodate 
the self-contained breathing apparatus worn 
wholly within the suit. The suit shall be designed 
so as to permit the wearer to manipulate the 
controls and adjust the head harness of the 
breathing apparatus, including the supplementary 
air supply. 

E^ COMBINATIONS OF EQUIPMENT 

When protective clothing is worn together with other 
forms of personal protective equipment, such as 
respiratory protective equipment, eye protection, 
protective helmets and/or hearing protection devices, 
whose primary function is other than protection of the 
skin as such, the following recommendations apply: 

a) Care should be taken that no new or additional 
hazard is introduced; 

b) Whatever the primary function of each individual 
garment or item of personal protective equipment, 
the personal protective equipment as a whole 
should afford due protection to the skin; and 

c) As far as practicable, the personal protective 
equipment as a whole should fit the wearer and 
be comfortable in use. 



13 



TS 15071 : 2002 



ASSESS WHAT TYPE OF GARMENT(S) 
IS APPROPRIATE 



RE-ASSESS 

CHARACTERISTICS OF 

COMBINATIONS OF 

INDIVIDUAL ITEMS 

OF PPE 



NO 



ARE THE 

^GARMENTS COMPATIBLE" 

WITH OTHER ITEMS OF 

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE 

.EQUIPMENT(PPE)^ 



Lyes 



OBTAIN ADVICE FROM CHEMICAL SUPPLIERS, GARMENT SUPPLIERS 

AND MANUFACTURERS, OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENISTS AND SAFETY 

AUTHORITIES REGARDING CHOICE OF CONSTRUCTION 



NO 



DEFINE REQUIREMENTS FOR 

A HHM PER MJ ABLE MATERIALS 




YES 



x 



DEFINE REQUIREMENTS FOR 
AIR-PERMEABLE MATERIALS 



DO THE RESULTS OF TESTS SHOW THAT THE MATERIAL GIVES THE REQUIRED 
LEVEL OF PROTECTION AND HAS SUITABLE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS ? 



£ 



YES 
TO FIG 6 



Fig. 5 Schematic Diagram for Selection of Type of Garment and Material of Construction 



FIG. 5 



CONSIDER WHETHER GARMENT DESIGN ACCORDS WFTH NEEDS 

OF THE WEARER TAKNG ACCOUNT OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES 

OF THE WORKPLACE 



NO 



NO 



NO 



YES 



DOES GARMENT DESIGN 

J)FFER APPROPRIATE PROTECTION AGAINST CONTACT^ 

JVITH CHEMICALS^ 

YES 

DOES THE PROTECTIVE 

CLOTHING PROVIDE ADEQUATE COMFORT, FLEXIBILITY^ 

FIT & STYLE? 

YES 

IS THE™ 
CLOTHING COMPATIBLE WITH THE USE OF 
OTHER EQUIPMENT^ 

YES 

ARETOERE" 

ANY OTHER FACTORS TO BE TAKEN 

JKTOACC^JNTi. 

NO 

END 



Fig. 6 Schematic Diagram for Consideration of Protective Clothing Design 



14 



IS 15071 : 2002 





(a) TWO-PIECE SPRAY SUIT 



(b) ONE-PIECE COVERALL WITH HOOD 




\*i V) \ 




(C) AIR-SUPPLIED CLOTHING 



W) GAS-TIGHT COVERALL WITH SELF- 
CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS 



Fig. 7 Types of Complete Cover Garments 



15 



IS 15071 : 2002 



Organization 
National Safety Council, Mumbai 
Airport Authority of India, New Delhi 

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre t Mumbai 
Central Boiler Board, New Delhi 

Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 

Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad 



Chief Controller of Explosives, Nagpur 
Confederation of Indian Industries, New Delhi 
Directorate General Factory Advice Services and 

Labour Institutes, Mumbai 
Directorate General Health Services, New Delhi 



ANNEX F 
(Foreword) 

COMMITTEE COMPOSITION 

Industrial Safety Sectional Committee, CHD 8 

Representative^) 
Shri K. C. Gupta (Chairman) 
Shw L. C- Gupta 

Shrj H. S. Rawat (Alternate) 

Shri S.N arayan 
ShriV.K.Goel 

Shrj M. L. Ahum (Alternate) 
Dr S. Sadulla 

Shrj G. Swaminathan (Alternate) 
Shri A. K. Acharya 

Shrj P. K. Nair (Alternate) 
Shri R. H. Bhelekar 
ShriK.P.Nyati 
Shrj M. K. Malhotra 



Directorate General of Mines Safety, Dhanbad 

Employees State Insurance Corporation, Kolkata 

Factory Inspectorate, Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai 
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bangalore 

Indian Cotton Mills Federation, Mumbai 

Indian Space Research Organization, Shriharikota 

Larsen & Toubro Limited (ECC Construction Group), 

Chennai 
Mining, Geological and Metallurgical Institute of India, 

Kolkata 
Ministry of Defence, Ordnance Factory Board, Kolkata 

Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (Oil Industries 

Safety Directorate), New Delhi 
National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad 

National Safety Council, Mumbai 

Office of the Development Commissioner (SSI), New Delhi 
Safety Appliances Manufacturer's Association, Mumbai 

Standing Committee on Safety for Steel Industry, SAIL, 

Ranchi 
Standing Fire Advisory Council, New Delhi 

BIS Directorate General 



Dr S. C. Chawala 

Dr B. B. Thakur (Alternate) 
Director (Mines Safety) 

Shrj A. K, Rudra (Alternate) 
Shri Bhagwati Prasad 

Shrj Satish Chander (Alternate) 

RjaHESEKTATTVE 

Shri Prem Baweja 

Shri B. Vuay Kumar (Alternate) 
Shri M. R. Sampath 

Shrj O. N. Daga (Alternate) 
Shrj P. N. Sankaran 

Shrj V, JC. Srivastava (Alternate) 
Shrj R. K. Poddar 

Shrj J. P. Goenka 

Shrj N. Dutta (Alternate) 
Shri Sucha Singh 

Shri R. Srjnivasan (Alternate) 
Shri M. Srivastava 

Shrj S. N, Mathur (Alternate) 
ShriG. P.Yadav 

Shri N. Jaipal (Alternate) 
Shri H.N. Gupta 

Shri R. P, Bhanushau (Alternate) 
Shri G. S. Kashyap 
Shri M. Kant 

Shri Kirti Maru (Alternate) 
Dr J. Tripathy 

Shri V. K. Jain (Alternate) 
Shri S. K. Mukherjee 

Shri A. K. Ghosh (Alternate) 
Shri Lajinder Singh, Director & Head (CHD) 
[Representing Director General (Ex-officio Member)] 



Member-Secretary 
Shri P. Mukhopadhyay 
Director (CHD), BIS 



(Continued on page 1 7) 



16 



IS 15071 : 2002 



(Continued from page 16) 

Personal Protective Equipment 

Organization 

Directorate General Factory Advice Services 

and Labour Institutes, Mumbai 
Birla 3M Limited, Bangalore 
Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad 

Fabricare Private Ltd, Pune 

Indian Petrochemicals Ltd, Vadodara 

Joseph Leslie Drager Manufacturing & Co, Mumbai 

National Test House, Kolkata 

Nuclear Powder Corporation, Mumbai 

Office of the Development Commissioner (SSI), 

New Delhi 
Oil Industry Safety Directorate, Ministry of Petroleum, 

Government of India, New Delhi 
Safety Services, Mumbai 

SAIL Safety Organization 

Udyogi Moulders (P) Limited, Kolkata 



(Non-Respiratory) Subcommittee CHD 8 : 2 

Representative (s) 
Shri M. K. Malhotra {Convener) 

Shri Harold Barnes 

Shri A. K. Acharya 

Shri P. K. Najr (Alternate) 
Shri Jayaprakash Sathe 

Shri Sadanand Satpute (Alternate) 
Shri J. N. Sharma 
Shri C. Perreira 

Shri J. S. Chauhan (Alternate) 
Dr S. Rahut 

Dr Jogesh Nuhawan (Alternate) 
Shrj R. K. Kapoor 

Shrj M. D. Joseph (Alternate) 
ShrjG.S.Kashyap 

Shri S. N. Mathur 

Shri A. Ghatak (Alternate) 
Shri M. Kant 

Shri Kamlesh Dand (Alternate) 
Shri V. K. Jain 
Shri M. Bagrj 

Shri S. K. Moundhra (Alternate) 



17 



Bureau of Indian Standards 

BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 to promote 
harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods 
and attending to connected matters in the country. 

Copyright 

BIS has the copyright of all its publications. No part of these publications may be reproduced in any form without 
the prior permission in writing of BIS* This does not preclude the free use, in the course 
of implementing the standard, of necessary details, such as symbols and sizes, type or grade 
designations. Enquiries relating to copyright be addressed to the Director (Publications), BIS. 

Review of Indian Standards 

Amendments are issued to standards as the need arises on the basis of comments. Standards are also reviewed 
periodically; a standard along with amendments is reaffirmed when such review indicates that no changes are 
needed; if the review indicates that changes are needed, it is taken up for revision. Users of Indian Standards 
should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition by referring to the latest issue of 
'BIS Catalogue' and 'Standards: Monthly Additions 1 . 

This Indian Standard has been developed from Doc No. : CHD 8 (24 1 \ 

Amendments Issued Since Publication 

Amend No. Date of Issue Text Affected 



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